Heydar Alirza oglu Aliyev was born on May 10, 1923 in the city of Nakhchivan, Azerbaijan. After graduating from Nakhchivan Pedagogical College in 1939, he entered the Faculty of Architecture of the Azerbaijan Industrial Institute (now Azerbaijan State Oil Academy), but the education due to the outbreak of the war was left unfinished.
Since 1941, Heydar Aliyev has been working in the Department of the People’s Internal Affairs Commissariat of the USSR and the Council of People’s commissars in responsible positions, since 1944 he has been sent to work in the state security bodies. He received a special higher education in Leningrad (now Saint Petersburg) and Moscow, and in 1957 he graduated from the Faculty of history of Azerbaijan State University. Working for twenty-five years in the state security agencies, Heydar Aliyev worked as the deputy chairman of the State Security Committee under the Council of Ministers of Azerbaijan SSR since 1964, and the chairman since 1967 and has been promoted to the rank of Major-General.
Heydar Aliyev was elected the First secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Azerbaijan in July 1969 and became the head of the republic.
In 1976 he was elected as a candidate to the Political Bureau of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, in December 1982 he was appointed as the first deputy chairman of the USSR Council of Ministers. Working in this position, Heydar Aliyev headed the most important spheres of the USSR’s economic, social and cultural life.
Heydar Aliyev has been a member of the Supreme Soviets of the USSR and Azerbaijan for 20 years and worked as the first deputy chairman of the USSR Council of Ministers for five years.
In October 1987, he resigned from its positions as a sign of protest against the political line pursued by the Political Bureau of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and personally Secretary General Mikhail Gorbachev.
On the next day of the bloody tragedy committed by the Soviet troops in Baku on January 20, 1990, Heydar Aliyev made a statement at the representation of Azerbaijan in Moscow and demanded to punish the organizers and supporters of the crime committed against the Azerbaijani people. In July 1991, he left the Communist Party of the Soviet Union as a sign of protest against the sharp conflict in Nagorno-Karabakh as a result of the hypocritical policy of the USSR leadership.
Returning to Azerbaijan in July 1990, Heydar Aliyev first lived in Baku, then in Nakhchivan, and in the same year he was elected a deputy to the Supreme Soviet of Azerbaijan. In 1991-1993 he worked as the Chairman of the Supreme Assembly of the Autonomous Republic of Nakhchivan, Deputy Chairman of the Supreme Assembly of the Republic of Azerbaijan. Heydar Aliyev was elected the Chairman of the YAP at the Constituent Congress of the New Azerbaijan Party (YAP) in Nakhchivan in 1992.
In May-June 1993, when as a result of the sharpening of the government crisis there was a threat of civil war in the country and loss of independence, the people of Azerbaijan demanded to bring Heydar Aliyev to power, and the leadership of Azerbaijan at that time had to invite Heydar Aliyev to Baku.
On June 15, 1993, Heydar Aliyev was elected Chairman of the Supreme Soviet of Azerbaijan; on July 24 he began to exercise the powers of the President of the Republic of Azerbaijan by the decision of the Milli Majlis. As a result of the election held on October 3, 1993, Heydar Aliyev was elected President of the Republic of Azerbaijan. In the elections held on October 11, 1998, he was re-elected the President of the Republic of Azerbaijan. Heydar Aliyev, who agreed to nominate his candidacy in the next presidential election, refused to participate in the elections held on October 15, 2003 in connection with health problems.
Azerbaijan national leader Heydar Aliyev died in Cleveland Clinic (USA), where he was treated on December 12, 2003, and was buried in the Alley of Honor in Baku on December 15.